Indicators

Overview

Regional indicators characterize the status and trends of the marine environment as well as the socio-economic and management conditions around it.

Reef Health Index

The Reef Health Index developed by the Healthy Reefs Initiative (HRI). Healthy Reefs Initiative is one of the first efforts globally to develop measurable ranking criteria for indicators of coral reef health. The development of a single index, the Reef Health Index (RHI), facilitates the mapping and reporting on reef health for a “big picture” snapshot. Indicators are parameters or metrics of an ecosystem that relay relevant information on the condition of the ecosystem. They help translate the complex concept of ecosystem health into tangible, rigorously defined quantities by which changes in condition can be assessed over time. The mean value of each indicator is compared to the following thresholds and given a grade from one (‘critical’) to five (‘very good’). The four grades are averaged to obtain the RHI score for each site. It is important to highlight that a site with a given RHI score (e.g., ‘fair’) may have some indicator(s) ranking in different conditions (e.g., ‘good’).

More information can be found in the RHI Documentation.

Management Effectiveness

The management effectiveness assessment is the evaluation of the extent to which protected area values are being preserved and maintained and how well protected areas are being managed- ie. whether or not the goal and objectives of the managed area are being met. There are three main themes covered in every evaluation of management effectiveness:

  • Design issues for both individual sites and protected area systems
  • Adequacy and appropriateness of management systems and processes
  • Delivery of protected area objectives including conservation values

For data from both Gill et al. 2017 and CMBP’s management effectiveness assessments, a defined binary threshold for effective management based on the scoring criteria was established (ie. a score of one (1) is graded below the effectiveness threshold and scores of two (2) or three (3) are grades above the effectiveness threshold). This binary threshold was established from widely applied management assessment survey instruments which provide qualitative, Likert-scaled scores on questions posed to MPA stakeholders focused on management capacity and activities.

More information can be found in the ME Documentation.

Coral Reef Health

Reef Health Index (RHI)

Description: Combined index that averages the score of the 4 other biological indicators: coral cover, fleshy macroalgae, herbivorous fish, and commercial fish.

Geographic scales available: Region, Country

Grade Description
Very Good
4.3 - 5
Good
3.5 - 4.2
Fair
2.7 - 3.4
Poor
1.9 - 2.6
Critical
1 - 1.8

Coral Cover

Description: Measure of the average percentage of reef surface covered by live stony coral on average.

Geographic scales available: Region, Country

Grade Description
Very Good
≥ 40%
Good
20% - 39.9%
Fair
10% - 19.9%
Poor
5% - 9.9%
Critical
< 5%

Fleshy Macroalgae

Description: Measure of the average amount of large, soft, fleshy algae (sometimes called “seaweed”) on a reef.

Geographic scales available: Region, Country

Grade Description
Very Good
0% - 0.9%
Good
1% - 5%
Fair
5.1% - 12%
Poor
12.1% - 25%
Critical
> 25%

Herbivorous Fish

Description: Measure of the average biomass of fish species that feed on plants and macroalgae in grams/100m². Includes parrotfish greater than 20cm.

Geographic scales available: Region, Country

Grade Description
Very Good
≥ 3290 g/100m²
Good
2740 - 3289 g/100m²
Fair
1860 - 2739 g/100m²
Poor
990 - 1859 g/100m²
Critical
<990 g/100m²

Commercial Fish

Description: Measure of the average biomass of commercial fish species on a reef in grams/100m². includes grouper larger than 40cm.

Geographic scales available: Region, Country

Grade Description
Very Good
≥ 1620 g/100m²
Good
1210 - 1619 g/100m²
Fair
800 - 1209 g/100m²
Poor
390 - 799 g/100m²
Critical
< 390 g/100m²

Socioeconomic

Management Effectiveness

Legally Gazetted

Description: Announced or published in an official journal or newspaper.

Geographic scales available: Region, Country

Grade Description
Above Threshold
Above
Below Threshold
Below
None
Not Available

Appropriate Regulation

Description: Appropriate MPA regulations are in place.

Geographic scales available: Region, Country

Grade Description
Above Threshold
Above
Below Threshold
Below
None
Not Available

Management Plan

Description: Existing management plan is being implemented.

Geographic scales available: Region, Country

Grade Description
Above Threshold
Above
Below Threshold
Below
None
Not Available

Enforcement Capacity

Description: Acceptable enforcement capacity.

Geographic scales available: Region, Country

Grade Description
Above Threshold
Above
Below Threshold
Below
None
Not Available

Budget Capacity

Description: Budget adequate for basic management needs.

Geographic scales available: Region, Country

Grade Description
Above Threshold
Above
Below Threshold
Below
None
Not Available

Defined Boundaries

Description: MPA boundaries are clearly defined.

Geographic scales available: Region, Country

Grade Description
Above Threshold
Above
Below Threshold
Below
None
Not Available

Monitoring

Description: Monitoring informs management activities.

Geographic scales available: Region, Country

Grade Description
Above Threshold
Above
Below Threshold
Below
None
Not Available

Staff Capacity

Description: Adequate staff capacity / presence.

Geographic scales available: Region, Country

Grade Description
Above Threshold
Above
Below Threshold
Below
None
Not Available

Inclusive

Description: Actively managed through equitable and inclusive decision-making.

Geographic scales available: Region, Country

Grade Description
Above Threshold
Above
Below Threshold
Below
None
Not Available

Shared Management

Description: Management is shared and not solely managed by state agencies.

Geographic scales available: Region, Country

Grade Description
Above Threshold
Above
Below Threshold
Below
None
Not Available